Russian form of Katherine [q.v.] and its variants Katharine/Catherine/Catharine. More popular than Yekaterina.
Introduced into Scotland by the returning crusaders. Katerina occurs in early records in place of Katherine and its various spellings.
Katerina is also the Czech form of Katherine although the correct Czech spelling is Kateřina.
The FreeREG list of Latin names used in old documents shows Catalina as being the equivalent of Catherine and Catherina / Katharina / Katalina being the equivalent of Katherine. Whatever the truth of it, care is needed when searching old documents as clearly there will be some variation in the names, even as there is today. Use truncated names [e.g. Catherin*] to avoid difficulties with Latin case endings.